ARMENIANS IN LEBANON KEEP THEIR CULTURE, MEMORY OF HEROIC 1915 BATTLE ALIVE

Los Angeles Times
April 242015

By Patrick J. McDonnell , Reporting from Anjar

The priest unlocks the door to a musty room, home to the ghosts of
Moses Mountain, a lost place where determined townsfolk once gathered
with hunting rifles and faced down an imperial army.

A glass-and-wood frame secures a white flag emblazoned with a fading
red cross, a symbol of resistance and survival celebrated in Armenian
lore. Laid out on tables and shelves are prized artifacts: a chalice,
rusted farming implements, an ancient rifle and black funeral boxes
holding remains of some of the 18 "martyrs" who were killed fighting
the Turks 100 years ago.

"Here, you can feel our ancestors' presence," said Father Ashod
Karakashian, 82, who came here from Turkey as a boy and has few direct
memories of his homeland. But he lives daily with its legacy.

A gardener tends to the plants at the Armenian Genocide Memorial
in Anjar, Lebanon, on April 17. Ethnic Armenians worldwide will
commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Armenian genocide on April 24.

A gardener tends to the plants at the Armenian Genocide Memorial
in Anjar, Lebanon, on April 17. Ethnic Armenians worldwide will
commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Armenian genocide on April 24.

As ethnic Armenians worldwide mark the centennial of a genocide at the
hands of Ottoman Turks, this town in Lebanon's Bekaa Valley embodies
one of that mournful chapter's most compelling back stories: the
unlikely resistance in 1915, at the height of Ottoman mass killings and
expulsions, of residents of a cluster of outgunned Armenian villages
in what is now southern Turkey's Hatay province.

>From the high ground of the mountain, their ammunition and food
growing ever scarce, they held off the Turks for more than a month
and a half.

On Friday, Armenian communities across the world, including Anjar,
are holding commemorative events. In Turkey, however, President Recep
Tayyip Erdogan has derided as "nonsense" a statement by Pope Francis
that the events of a century ago are "widely considered the first
genocide of the 20th century."

Little remains in Turkey of the once-thriving Armenian enclave of
six villages near Musa Dagh, or Moses Mountain, a few miles from the
Mediterranean coast. But it is here, in Lebanon, where the memory
lives on and is honored, and where the descendants of the defenders
of Musa Dagh have made a home.

::

Anjar is a quiet, orderly community of neatly laid-out streets,
many lined with palm and pine trees. Home to 3,000 people, almost
all ethnic Armenians and Christians, the town hosts three churches
and a smattering of restaurants and shops. A sense of calm prosperity
reigns in a region not especially known for tranquillity and order.

At an elevation of almost 3,000 feet, the town is spared the worst of
the Levantine summer heat. Snow falls in the winter. Anjar's borders
drift to mountains along the Syrian frontier, just a few miles away,
and elsewhere meld into apple orchards and other farmland.

The staccato soundtrack of modern-day war resounds periodically
from Syria. But few appear to take much notice of the not-so-distant
detonations of mortar rounds and artillery fire.

Amid the sense of prosperous normality, the only thing that might
cause a double take these days are the banners billowing in the wind,
their language plainly accusatory. "Guilty," blares a message in
English from a large rectangular banner, featuring stylized blood
dripping from the red letters stamped below a Turkish flag. "With Full
Charges For Murdering 1,500,000 Armenians." Other posters declare:
"We Remember and We Demand."

Lebanon and Syria were major destinations for Armenians escaping the
Turks during the World War I era. Armenians remain thankful of the
welcome they received in the two predominantly Muslim Arab nations.

Communities such as the Beirut neighborhood of Bourj Hammoud remain
bastions of Armenian culture, closely preserved despite the region's
periodic sectarian-fueled internal strife.

Fascinating story. It is amazing how old the Armenian civilization is
and how old the Armenian diaspora is. I remember visiting Italy and
reading references to Armenia communities there more than 2,000 years
ago. Interesting also reading about Franz Werfel, who wrote Musa Dagh,
in this story....

Not left or right hopefully pragmatic at 4:47 PM April 24, 2015

"Because everyone spoke Armenian in Bourj Hammoud, the Armenian
culture was completely preserved there, even as the civil war raged,"
said Garo Ghazarian, a Bourj Hammoud native who is a Los Angeles-area
lawyer and prominent Armenian activist in California.

In Syria, the punishing war has exacted a heavy toll on Armenian
communities there.

Some ethnic Armenians now see history repeating itself in Syria.

Armenian industrialists exiled from the city of Aleppo, once Syria's
economic engine, recall matter-of-factly how Turkey-backed Syrian
rebels stripped their factories bare and sold the spoils on the black
market in nearby Turkey.

"The war in Syria has been a huge blow against the Armenian diaspora,"
said Garabed Pamboukian, the mayor of Anjar. He also cited last year's
takeover of Kasab, a historic Armenian town in Syria, by Turkey-based
rebels; it was later recaptured by government forces.

"The Turks are continuing the genocide," he said.

A gardener tends to the plants at the Armenian Genocide Memorial
in Anjar, Lebanon, on April 17. Ethnic Armenians worldwide will
commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Armenian genocide on April 24.

A gardener tends to the plants at the Armenian Genocide Memorial
in Anjar, Lebanon, on April 17. Ethnic Armenians worldwide will
commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Armenian genocide on April 24.

In the summer of 1915, word of the brutal Ottoman campaign spread to
the isolated Armenian zone of Musa Dagh, home to about 5,000 people.

Rather than submit to the Turks, the residents of Musa Dagh decided to
fight back. From July to September, they stood their ground. Eighteen
people died in the fight.

The epic Armenian struggle against the Turks was captured by Franz
Werfel, a Czech German writer and contemporary of Franz Kafka, in his
1930s novel "The Forty Days of Musa Dagh," which became a bestseller
in the United States and was banned in Nazi Germany, where persecution
of entire populations became state policy. Werfel emerged as a hero
to the Armenian community worldwide.

The flag stored in a room near St. Paul's Church in Anjar played a
more than symbolic role, Anjar historians say. French warships, which
were blockading the Ottoman coast at the time, spotted the distinctive
flag fluttering from the peak of Moses Mountain, according to Armenian
accounts of the incident.

With food and ammunition running out on the mountain, a French rescue
party landed and helped evacuate the survivors. They were taken to
Port Said, Egypt. Many men enlisted in the Allied war effort against
the German-Turkish axis.

When the war ended, the Ottoman Empire defeated, the denizens of Musa
Dagh returned to their homeland, then part of an autonomous postwar
province of Syria under French mandate rule. They rebuilt and settled
into renewed lives. But global politics intervened as the Republic
of Turkey sought to recoup the area.

In 1939, the French acceded and the villages of Musa Dagh became part
of Turkey. But the residents had long memories. Most refused to live
under Turkish rule. With French help, they relocated temporarily to an
area on the Syrian coast before being moved to a place called Anjar,
a swampy, mosquito-infested plain in the Bekaa.

French authorities and Armenian donors helped pay for the land and the
relocation. About 4,500 people were moved, according to the official
town history, and started new lives in the inhospitable terrain.

Hundreds succumbed early on to typhoid, malaria and other ailments.

Initially, many settlers camped out in tents on what turned out to be
the ruins of an 8th century summer resort town of the Umayyad Islamic
caliphate. The ancient city was partially excavated in subsequent
decades; it is now a seldom-visited UNESCO World Heritage site.

"People think this is a war zone," said a melancholy guide at the
magnificent site, largely abandoned on a recent visit.

The war in Syria has been a huge blow against the Armenian diaspora.-
Anjar Garabed Pamboukian, the mayor of Anjar

The town was divided into six districts, each named after the
abandoned villages back in Turkey. Despite many hurdles, Anjar
prospered. Residents maintained their distinctive Armenian dialect
and taught the young the history of their ancestors' exile. Many
Anjarians did well in sundry businesses -- jewelry, money exchange,
clothing shops and other concerns -- and brought wealth to the town.

Anjar soon had its own diaspora, its sons and daughters moving to
Europe, the Americas, Australia and Africa.

"We never forgot that we were from Anjar and what our parents and
grandparents went through," said Shogher Chorbajian, a native of
Anjar and software developer who lives in Glendale.

Mayor Pamboukian, who once worked in the cashew trade in West Africa,
stays in touch with the global Anjar community, rattling off the
names of far-flung branches.

"We have people from Anjar everywhere, in the world," said Pamboukian,
whose daughter lives in Pasadena.

Adorning the mayor's office walls are photos of some of the town
pioneers, along with examples of local art, including an oil painting
depicting the white flag with the red cross rising from the snow-capped
summit of Moses Mountain.

http://www.latimes.com/world/great-reads/la-fg-c1-lebanon-anjar-20150424-story.html#page=2



From: Emil Lazarian | Ararat NewsPress