CENN – SEPTEMBER 30, 2004 DAILY DIGEST
Table of Contents:
1. Fire in Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park
2. Guides to Georgian Rangers of Borjomi-Kharagauli Natural Park
3. German co. to Pump $20-$25 mln into Armenian Metals Plant
4. Beekeeping Center Opened in Armenia
5. ATP Executive Director Addresses UN DPI NGO Conference
6. Armenian Government Purchase First 10,000 Tones of Nitric Fertilizers

7. Why was the Agency of Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring
Dissolved?
8. Water-pumping Station Launched in Mingachevir
9. Climate Problems Dedicated
10. CEI Press Release / 27.09.2004 / St.Petersburg, the International
Car-Free Day
11. Japan Should Adopt Emission Trading Scheme, Says WWF
12. Master's Programme Sustainable Development at the University of
Utrecht in The Netherlands



1. FIRE IN BORJOMI-KHARAGAULI NATIONAL PARK

Source: Rustavi2, September 30, 2004
Georgian Times, September 30, 2004

A fire broke out south to the Borjomi-Kharagauli forest-park and alpine
zone of the Borjomi preserve on September 29, 2004. Head of the
Department of the Protected Territories Gia Asatiani told INTER-PRESS
that especially the south part of the forest-park in the Atskuri village
is endangered. According to the spread news, approximately 30 firemen
have been trying to prevent fire; the cause of the fire is yet unknown.

In accordance with the official information, the Borjomi-Kharagauli
National Park covers more than 76 hectares of sub-alpine and alpine
meadows, with rare species of flora and fauna.


2. GUIDES TO GEORGIAN RANGERS OF BORJOMI-KHARAGAULI NATURAL PARK

The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs requests your attention on two
new guides in Georgian, which will be distributed, to the rangers of the
Borjomi-Kharagauli Natural Park. This represents the end result of
co-operation between the French National Forestry Organization and the
Georgian State Department of Forests on a project called "Assistance to
the Georgian government in the elaboration of criteria and indicators
for the definition and identification of protected areas".

We would greatly appreciate comments and recommendations on the guides.

For sending your comments, please contact
Merab MACHAVARIANI,
Environment and Forest Policy Expert,
Georgian State Department of Forests
E-mail: [email protected] (in English and Georgian)

Steven SPEED
International Expert
French National Forestry Organization:
E-mail: [email protected] (in English and French)

two new guides in Georgian please see the follow link:
http://www.cenn.org/info/GuideGeo FS 1.doc
http://www.cenn.org/info/GuideGeoFS2.doc


3. GERMAN CO. TO PUMP $20-$25 MLN INTO ARMENIAN METALS PLANT

Source: Interfax, September 16, 2004

Germany's Cronimet intends to invest $20 million-$25 million in the Pure
Iron works in Yerevan, which processes molybdenum concentrate.

The money should reach the plant in 2005-2006, in accordance with an
investment program, Genrik Karapetian, the plant's director, told
Interfax.

Most of the money will be spent making the plant more environmentally
friendly, introducing new technology and putting new products on line,
Karapetian said.

The Pure Iron works currently produces pure molybdenum but eventually
plans to make metal plates and special alloys, he said.


4. BEEKEEPING CENTER OPENED IN ARMENIA

Source: A1 Plus, September 19, 2004

Multi Agro beekeeping center was opened Thursday in Armenia. The center
is working with 2,567 beekeepers. This year 14 tones of honey were
produced but half of honey haul was taken to feed bees.

The center director Roza Tsarukyan says honey is to be exported in the
future. She said not only honey but pollen and medicines are planned to
be exported overseas.


5. ATP EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR ADDRESSES UN DPI NGO CONFERENCE

ARMENIA TREE PROJECT

65 Main Street
Watertown, MA 02472
617-926-8733
[email protected]
www.armeniatree.org

For Immediate Release
September 10, 2004

WATERTOWN, MA -- Armenia Tree Project (ATP) Executive Director Jeff
Masarjian participated this week in a panel held as part of the 57th
annual United Nations Department of Public Information/Non-Governmental
Organization Conference at the UN headquarters in New York. The
conference, titled "Millennium Development Goals: Civil Society Takes
Action," is taking place from September 8-10, 2004.

The focus of the conference is the role of NGOs as well as civil society
and governments for implementing the eight Millennium Development Goals
adopted by the UN in 2000. ATP was invited to participate in the
conference by the Armenian General Benevolent Union in association with
Rotary International, NGO Committee on Human Rights, Peace Action, and
the World Federation for Mental Health.

At the September 8 panel discussion with representatives of two other
NGOs, titled "Overcoming Obstacles to Economic Growth and Community
Development: The Role of Civil Society," Mr. Masarjian outlined the ways
that ATP reforestation efforts are addressing many of the UN Millennium
Development Goals. The following is an abridged text of Mr. Masarjian's
speech:

ATP Programs Contribute to Fulfillment of UN Millennium Goals in Armenia
By Jeff Masarjian, Armenia Tree Project Executive Director Armenia Tree
Project was founded in 1994 in response to the massive felling of trees
for fuel during the harsh winters of the early 1990s. The mission of
Armenia Tree Project is to improve the human, economic, and
environmental conditions of Armenia through the planting of trees,
aiding those with the fewest resources first.

Forests and trees are important and necessary components for maintaining
the environmental and economic infrastructure of a nation. They clean
the atmosphere, absorbing carbon dioxide and pollutants, while
simultaneously releasing oxygen. They attract and retain moisture, both
in the air and the soil, helping to regulate and stabilize the climate.
They prevent erosion and landslides, while retaining precious topsoil,
which is otherwise washed away with the rain, becoming silt in rivers,
streams and lakes, choking plant and animal life.

Forests also provide habitats for a diverse array of flora and fauna.
Armenia is home to over 3,600 species of flowering plants, many of which
are endangered and exist only in the ecosystems provided by the
dwindling forests.

>>From 1994 - 2002, Armenia Tree Project focused its activities on
creating jobs through re-greening public spaces, many of which were
littered with the stumps of sacrificed trees. ATP works closely with the
residents of local institutions, such as schools, senior centers,
hospitals, and orphanages, as well as neighborhoods.

Once accepted as an ATP site, residents receive the training and tools
they need to plant and tend the trees. The relationship is based upon a
contract between ATP and the recipient institution or group, which
agrees to replace the trees at its own expense if less than 70 percent
survive.

By appealing to residents' self interest, and using informal incentives
to promote compliance with the agreement, ATP is fostering a growing
respect for the environment through traditional value systems and needs
of the community. Residents--who had previously been plagued with
despair, while expecting the government or others to do something for
them to improve their lot--are now in a position of taking action to
make a direct impact on their immediate environment.

To date, ATP has assisted community residents in planting over 375,000
trees at 477 sites in every region of Armenia through our Community Tree
Planting program. ATP works closely with community schools to develop
environmental lessons, which are not typically part of the standard
curriculum.

The restoration of urban green spaces is the goal of ATP's Coppicing
Program, which employs several hundred Armenians each year in seasonal
work. Coppicing is a forestry technique by which tree stumps with intact
root systems are trimmed of shoots, leaving the strongest one to grow
into an exact replica of the original tree.

To date, ATP staff has supervised the restoration of 760 acres of land
at several sites, including the Armenian Genocide Memorial, Botanical
Gardens, Victory Park, and Paros Hill, all located in Yerevan. Over
155,000 trees have been restored through ATP's coppicing program since
1999.

The trees ATP supplies to community sites are propagated from seeds and
cuttings in our two state-of-the-art nurseries, founded in 1996 and 1998
in the refugee villages of Karin and Khatchpar. The nursery sites were
chosen specifically to provide employment opportunities for Armenian
refugees from Azerbaijan who are supporting extended families, and who
would otherwise have no source of income. The nurseries' 29 employees
are responsible for the production of 50,000 trees each year for
planting at community sites.

The 53 species of trees growing in our nurseries are all indigenous to
Armenia, and were chosen for their hardiness in surviving Armenia's
harsh climate. With the opening of the new Michael and Virginia Ohanian
Environmental Education Center at ATP's nursery in Karin village,
students from the State Agricultural Academy and elsewhere will attend
multi-media seminars and receive hands-on field practice with our staff.

In 2001, in response to a growing body of evidence published in
documents by the UN, the World Bank, and other sources regarding the
immediate and critical state of Armenia's deforestation and path towards
desertification, ATP initiated a series of strategic planning sessions
to devise new interventions that might have a greater impact for the
people and land of Armenia.

We realized that we needed to devise innovative new programs which would
not only plant considerably more trees, but also address the widespread
poverty and despair suffered by nearly half of all Armenians. Many
Armenians live in rural villages, and are forced to strip the
surrounding forests of trees for heating and cooking fuel, as well as
for sale to commercial interests.

In Fall 2002, ATP met with the leaders of Aygut, a small, slowly dying
Armenian refugee village, comprised of 290 families. Youth and young
adults would routinely leave seeking opportunities elsewhere, and elders
longed for their lost homes and villages in Azerbaijan.

The school principal spoke of a plot of land near the river which she
had hoped would someday be an orchard, supplying income to purchase
badly needed school supplies. ATP agreed to provide technical assistance
and 500 fruit and nut trees for the site, if residents could collaborate
together to clear the land, build irrigation channels and a road to the
site, and fence it in for protection from livestock. ATP also developed
an environmental curriculum for the school and trained teachers in
presenting it.

The members of the Aygut community succeeded in completing their part of
the contract within weeks of our initial meeting. By Spring 2003, 500
fruit and nut trees were planted by school children and adults, assisted
by the US Ambassador to Armenia, John Ordway, and other invitees, who
celebrated Earth Day at the new Aygut School orchard on April 22. I'm
very happy to report that I observed the first cherries blossoming on
the trees this summer.

Seventeen families also signed up to participate in a pilot project
whereby they would be trained to propagate several thousand tree seeds,
collected locally, in newly developed backyard nurseries. For each
surviving seedling that the participant will then plant in the forest,
ATP will provide a set payment.

Seven species of local tree seeds are currently being propagated, and
some have already reached a height of 12 inches and may be out planted
this fall. In this, the pilot phase of the project, 20,000 seedlings are
being grown; we hope to increase this 10 fold over the next two years by
expanding this micro-enterprise opportunity to more residents in Aygut
and other villages.

This project can potentially increase the annual income of participating
families several times over, without negatively impacting the amount of
land needed for subsistence farming. In addition, because the trees are
grown using a short-term rotation cycle of 12-18 months, the per-unit
cost is less than in our traditional nurseries, creating a win-win
situation for everyone.

There are 13 villages in the river valley where Aygut is located,
comprising 6,000 people. ATP plans to replicate programming in three new
villages in 2005, using the same methodology to promote economic,
ecological, social, and cultural development. We expect that the fruit
produced in this valley will not only contribute to residents' food
security, but also attract the interest of businesses involved in fruit
juice production and export.

Early on in our involvement with the residents of Aygut, it became clear
that the humanitarian and development needs of this village were far
beyond ATP's individual capacity. We took a very collaborative approach
to our work in the village, inviting other international aid
organizations and NGOs to visit the village and observe the progress
achieved over the past year.

Organizations such as UN World Food Program, UNDP, Heifer International,
Project Harmony, USDA, Peace Corps, Satsil, and Jinishian Family
Foundation, among others, have contributed expertise and support in
furthering the social and economic evelopment of Aygut.

The Mayor recently reported that since ATP initiated programming there,
emigration from the village has halted, there has been a noticeable
improvement in the overall demeanor and perspective of villagers, and
there was even a record number of births, all indicators of a growing
sense of hope and optimism.

In addition to this innovative community development and reforestation
programming, ATP this year partnered with a local environmental NGO,
called Tsiatsan, in the city of Vanadzor, to build a six hectare
reforestation nursery that has the capacity to produce over one million
trees each year beginning in 2006. These trees will be used to reforest
the devastated hillsides around the city, which have become subject to
serious erosion and landslides over the past 13 years.

In conclusion, Armenia Tree Project is implementing its mission to
protect and restore Armenia's forests through a unique combination of
programming that aims to plant a growing number of trees each year,
while providing opportunities for employment, sustainable economic
development, training and education.

Our goal is to empower residents to become stewards of their environment
while also enhancing their standard of living and hopes for their
children's future. It is our hope that our decentralized approach to
developing an environmental ethic based on education, action, and
self-determination will eventually lead to a national and even regional
commitment to environmental protection and enforcement of sustainable
practice.


6. ARMENIAN GOVERNMENT PURCHASE FIRST 10,000 TONS OF NITRIC FERTILIZERS

Source: Arminfo, September 15, 2004

The Armenian Government will purchase 10,000 tons of nitric fertilizers
for forthcoming autumn and spring sowing, said Armenian Minister of
Agriculture David Lokyan at the Armenian National Assembly today.

He said that should need arise, the Government will purchase a second
lot of fertilizes. Besides, another 2,500 tons of nitric fertilizers
will be imported to the country due to a Japanese grant from Voronezh.
In 2004 the ministry distributed 18 tons of fertilizersfor 3,700 drams
for one sack to the country's regions. However, after, the market price
of fertilizers rose and the Government allocated 72 mln drams dotations
to maintain stability of prices by the end of 2004. Lokyan said that
import of fertilizes in 2005 will become a serious problem, as "Azot"
plant in Georgia factually belonging to the ITERA International Group
intends to rise the price of its production to the international level.
The minister said that production of fertilizers in the country is
impossible in the nearest future, as the country's chemical industry is
not ready for it. He said that Vanadzor chemical plant belonging to the
Armenian-Russian company "Prometey-Khimprom" is able to produce only two
types of fertilizers.


7. WHY WAS THE AGENCY OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING
DISSOLVED?

Source: Investigative Journal lists of Armenia / HETQ Online, September
29, 2004

"It is clear that for some reason the government doesn't want to have a
real picture of the environment," says Tamara Hovhannisyan, deputy head
of the now defunct Agency of Hydrometeorology and Environmental
Monitoring.

According to the March 17, 2004 Decision # 420-N by the Government of
Armenia, the Agency of Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of
the Ministry of Ecology was reorganized as the Division of Meteorology
and Atmospheric Pollution Monitoring. This change provoked various
comments, some of them outraged.

"In reality, this reorganization, at first glance presented within the
context of structural reform, might indicate the involvement of quite
serious corporate interests," say former managers at the agency. One of
their arguments is the fact that in the more than ten years that it has
existed, the Armenian Parliament has adopted only one law in this field,
the Law on Hydrometeorology, and it did so in response to public demand,
when there were no private interests involved.

It should come as no surprise that the head of the Standing Commission
on Health, Ecology and Social Issues of the National Assembly, Gagik
Mkheyan, was unaware of the recent government decision. But rather than
reflecting on his lack of information, Mkheyan laid down conditions:
"Unless you tell me how you found out about the decision, I will not
talk to you; I place a high value on my every word."

The fact is the dissolution of the Agency of Hydrometeorology and
Environmental Monitoring is a direct consequence of parliamentary
inaction.

Gennady Kodjoyan and Tamara Hovhannisyan have worked in the field of
ecology for nearly forty years, mostly at the managerial level.
According to Kodjoyan, he was entrusted to manage the structure under
circumstances in which there were no laws or regulations defining what
exactly an "agency" was.

"It was impossible to head something when it was unclear whether it was
a governing body, a policy designing body or a supervisory body, or none
of the above. Managing implies having tools and resources, but we were
given neither staff, nor financial, material nor professional leverage.
In general, it is not clear in our country what an agency means. The
legal framework is completely missing," Kodjoyan explains.

Then what one can expect from an agency in the field of, say,
atmospheric pollution or natural resources management, when one out of
three employees of the agency owns private minibus lines, manages a
cement plant, or runs another air-polluting enterprise? The point is
that the regulation of the legal framework in the field of environmental
monitoring will bring with it huge penalties for polluting air, water,
and soil. Environmental laws will have to be implemented, which will
affect large and small oligarchs. This is something that Armenia is not
ready for.

But Kodjoyan says, "It's a matter of time; sooner or later European
institutions will oblige us to meet these requirements."

The government explains the recent restructuring as being aimed at
"eliminating redundancy in the activity of various departments of the
ministry, making the ministry's functioning more efficient, as well as
ensuring sectoral division."

"In order to do this it is first of all necessary to create an efficient
system of management," Kodjoyan insists, "It depends on what we want to
do. If we want to fish in troubled waters, we can leave everything as it
is. If we want everything to be clear and transparent to all of us, the
tools exist, there is no need to reinvent the wheel."

To improve efficiency, Gennady Kodjoyan recommends separating the
functions of the Ministry of Ecology and creating four independent
departments -resource analysis (monitoring); resource management;
strictly ecological issues, including the development of laws, normative
acts, etc; and supervision, which will control the implementation of
laws be entitled to impose penalties.

"Otherwise, if one department deals with all these issues, that is, it
itself utilizes resources and as a result pollutes the environment, and
it itself monitors the levels of pollution, then it is clear that there
is a conflict of interest here," he says.

The fact is, the dissolution of the Agency of Hydrometeorology and
Environmental Monitoring is "change for change's sake" and does not
signal a real attempt to raise the net efficiency of the reforms.

At present, the dissolution of the agency has deprived us of the ability
to get complete information about, and to analyze and assess the results
of, ecological monitoring. Moreover, it is not clear who is, in place of
the agency, now implementing state policy on environmental monitoring,
if such a policy exists at all.


8. WATER-PUMPING STATION LAUNCHED IN MINGACHEVIR

Source: State Telegraphic Agency of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Azertag,
September 22, 2004

A new water-pumping station supplying Migachevir and three IDP's camps
with drinking water has been recently constructed and put into operation
in Mingachevir.

Speakers said that the station had been constructed in accordance with
President Ilham Aliyev's instructions given during his visit to
Mingachiver on July 8, 2004.


9. CLIMATE PROBLEMS DEDICATED

Source: State Telegraphic Agency of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Azertag,
September 24, 2004

Seminar related to the issues of technical support of commitments taken
by the countries of Caucasus and Moldova in the field of climate changes
was held at the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources.

The representatives of several Ministries, state committee, NGOs,
National Academy of Sciences attended the work of the seminar

The workshop was held in frame of the project "Mechanism of pure
development" implementing in accordance with the regulations of Kyoto
Protocol. Azerbaijan attends this project since 2004. Main goal of
2-year project is to promote in formation of the institutional
infrastructure for realization of numerous projects aimed at reduction
of level of hotbed gases in atmosphere, preparation of national program
in the field of climate changes and reduction of their impact on the
environment and human health.


10. CEI PRESS RELEASE / 27.09.2004 / ST.PETERSBURG, THE INTERNATIONAL
CAR-FREE DAY

Centre for Environmental Initiatives

PRESS RELEASE
September 27, 2004

On September 26, 2004 the Centre for Environmental Initiatives organized
in St.Petersburg a special competition as an event linked to the
International Car-Free Day. The competition was also supported by the
Running City project and Children of the Baltic youth environmental NGO.
The goal of the competition was promotion of public transportation and
bicycle in St.Petersburg.

33 teams competed in two categories - Public Transport and Bicycle.
Their task was to visit 10 points in the central and northern parts of
St.Petersburg.

"The competition results showed poor state of public transportation in
St.Petersburg. - says Alexander Fedorov, the Council chairman of the
Centre for Environmental Initiatives. - The 50-km way took 4 to 5 hours
for those competition participants who went by public transport."
Bicyclists made the same way in 3 hours, on the average. On weekdays,
when the city is full of traffic jams, bicyclists would have even
greater advantage over other transportation methods.

The most urgent environmental problem in St.Petersburg is air pollution.
Car traffic contributes over 80 % in it. The permissible levels of
pollutants content in the air of all major streets are greatly exceeded.
Now understanding is growing in the world that only development of
public transportation is a real and sustainable solution to transport
and environmental problems of big cities. Public transport creations
much lesser air pollution per one passenger as compared to private cars.
In St.Petersburg, about 85 % of all trips are made by public transport.
Public transportation in St.Petersburg should be improved, but not
destroyed.

Residents of those cities where much attention is paid to public health
and to the environment, use bicycles a lot. For that, they have safe and
comfortable bike paths and other elements of bike infrastructure.
According to the study performed by the Centre for Environmental
Initiatives in July 2004, there are more bicycles in St.Petersburg than
private cars. However, there are no bike paths and corresponding road
signs in the city. "Many people, especially young, would like to use
bicycles in the city. – says Olga Senova, the Children of the Baltic
Board chairperson. - Unfortunately, hazards and difficulties force most
of them to leave their bicycles at home. Our city has a lot of
possibilities to create bike infrastructure, and these possibilities
must be used."

St.Petersburg NGOs are sure that improvement of the public
transportation system in the city is the real and the only possible way
to solve transport and environmental problems. And development of
bicycle here would put our city in a row with other cities in the world
that take care not only of economic growth, but also of health and
comfort for their residents.

For more information please contact:
Centre for Environmental Information
[email protected]
Phone/fax: +7 812 3156622


11. JAPAN SHOULD ADOPT EMISSION TRADING SCHEME, SAYS WWF

Press Release Embargoed for 28 September 10:00 am in Tokyo

Tokyo, Japan - Japan should make more effort to reach its target under
the Kyoto protocol of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 6% below 1990
levels by 2012, by adopting a scheme to trade emissions in climate
changing gases, WWF, the global conservation organisation, said today.
The Japanese government should clearly state its aim of introducing a
domestic emissions trading scheme by 2008, and start preparations in
2005 and a pilot phase in 2006.

A new WWF report, commissioned from the German think tank Oeko
Institute, proposes an emissions trading scheme that would help Japan
cut its emissions by 168 millions tons. Currently Japan is 7.6% over its
1990 levels, with two thirds of its emissions coming from its energy and
industrial sector.

While industry has been opposed to other CO2 emission strategies such as
a carbon tax, WWF Japan believes that emissions trading could be more
attractive. According to the report, an emission trading scheme is the
most flexible tool to identify cost effective measures for emission
reductions; it would therefore help Japan's competitiveness.
Furthermore, if the scheme is designed to be compatible with other
emerging markets such as the European Emissions Trading System, it will
offer even more cost reduction advantages while remaining
environmentally credible and effective.

"The answer to Japan's climate pollution problem is a mix of policy
measures, yet this should include an emissions trading system," said
Yurika Ayukawa, head of the WWF Japan climate programme. "It is
essential that we internalize pollution costs so that they become a
factor in company accounts. Through the trading scheme, innovative
companies will be rewarded and laggards will be punished. It's a fair,
market-driven system that can obtain astonishing results when handled in
the right way."

The world's first emission trading scheme will enter into force in
January 2005 between European Union member states. The City of London is
set to become a major trading place for climate damaging emissions.
Meanwhile plans are afoot for a number of states in the US to set up a
joint emission trading system. National systems will eventually be
linked to a global trading scheme when the Kyoto protocol enters into
force.

For further information:
Ms. Hiroko Sakuma (press officer), tel: +81-3-3769-1713
Mr. Naoyuki Yamagishi and
Ms. Yurika Ayukawa (Climate Change Programme officers)
tel: 81-3-3769-3509
Email: [email protected], [email protected]=20

Full report at
http://www.panda.org/downloads/climate_change/final0926.pdf

Editors Notes:

o Under emissions trading scheme, power stations and large
energy-intensive steel, cement, chemical and iron manufacturers match
their CO2 emissions with permits issued by governments. Any companies
exceeding these allowances have to buy spare ones from firms which have
found ways of keeping greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere.

o The EU emission trading scheme will come into force in January 2005.
The EU has apportioned its target of emission reductions under the Kyoto
Protocol to each member state. Each government has then drawn up
national allocation plans for installations of the industry sectors
concerned. The scheme will at first run for a three-year trial period.
WWF has criticised the National Allocation Plans as too weak for the
system to reduce emissions sufficiently.=20
o In Japan, the Guidelines for Measures to Prevent Global Warming are
currently being reviewed for its first step (2002-2004). If current
measures are found to be not enough to meet the Kyoto target, new and
additional measures need to be introduced for the second step
(2005-2007). This year, 2004 is a crucial time to propose new measures
for a climate policy of Japan. Japan's emissions are 7.6% above 1990
levels. If we miss this chance this year, the next chance will be 2007.
This is why WWF Japan is launching this proposal.


12. MASTER'S PROGRAMME SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
UTRECHT IN THE NETHERLANDS

Dear Colleague,

We are currently seeking applicants for admission to our master's
programme Sustainable Development at the University of Utrecht in The
Netherlands.

The master Sustainable Development is a two-year programme. It starts
twice a year, in February and in September, and it consists of three
different tracks:

A) Energy and Resources
B) Land Use, Environment and Biodiversity
C) Environmental Policy and Management

Since 2003 international students with various academic backgrounds and
nationalities follow this programme, because:

o The programme offers a unique multidisciplinary approach, working with
research teams of experts that do not shy away from confrontation and
integration of ideas and viewpoints.
o The programme is developed by the Utrecht University's Copernicus
Institute for sustainable development and innovation, one of the world's
leading research groups on sustainability issues.
o The programme offers a varied combination of lectures, working groups,
case studies, excursions, multidisciplinary and internationally
orientated research projects and internships with external
organisations.

For more information about the content of the programme, the course
outlines or the entrance requirements, please visit our website:
www.geo.uu.nl/mastersd. You can also order a brochure online.

Mariëlle van Gelderen
Information Officer
+ 31 30 2537828

University of Utrecht
Department of Innovation & Environmental Sciences
Budapestlaan 4 (room Z002) 3584 CS Utrecht
The Netherlands